Kumbh Mela: The flow of humanity

The Kumbh Mela is the largest public gathering and collective act of faith, anywhere in the world. The Mela draws tens of millions of pilgrims over the course of approximately 48 days to bathe at the sacred confluence of the Ganga, the Yamuna, and the mystical Sarasvati. Primarily, this congregation includes Ascetics, Saints, Sadhus, Sadhvis, Kalpvasis, and Pilgrims from all walks of life.

A spiritual conscience

The Kumbh Mela is the biggest religious congregation in the world.

India’s Kumbh Mela has been recognized by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as an “Intangible cultural heritage of humanity” and held up as the world’s largest peaceful gathering of pilgrims.

In continuation of the astrological calculation, the event of Kumbh takes place as per the following astrological positions

  • When Jupiter enters the Aquarius constellation along with the Sun moving in to the Aries constellation, the Kumbh festival is held at Haridwar.

The confluence (Sangam) of all the cultures in the universe.

Kumbh Mela, in Hinduism, is a religious pilgrimage that is celebrated four times over a course of 12 years. The geographical location of Kumbh Mela spans over four locations in India and the Mela site keeps rotating between one of the four pilgrimages on four sacred rivers as listed below

1.Haridwar on the Ganges in Uttarakhand

2.Ujjain on the Shipra in Madhya Pradesh

When Jupiter moves into Leo, the Kumbh festival is held at Nasik on the banks of Godavari and in the event of Jupiter moving into Leo and the Sun entering Aries, the Kumbh festival is held at Ujjain. When Jupiter enters Libra and the Sun and the Moon remain together on Kartik Amavasya (8th month of Hindu year) then also the Kumbh Festival is held at Ujjain.

3.Nashik on the Godavari in Maharashtra

The flow of humanity When Jupiter enters the Aries constellation and the Sun and the Moon is in Capricorn constellation, the Kumbh festival is held at Prayagraj on the new moon day.
When the Sun is in Capricorn and Jupiter moves into Taurus, the Kumbh festival is held at Prayagraj.

4.Prayagraj at the confluence of the Ganges, the Yamuna, and the mythical Sarasvati in Uttar Pradesh,

Pilgrims to the Kumbh Mela come from all sections of the religion ranging from Sadhus (saints) and Naga Sadhus who practice ‘sadhana’ and keenly follow a strict path of spiritual discipline, to Hermits who leave their seclusion and come to visit the civilization only during the Kumbh Mela, to seekers of spirituality, and to common people practicing Hinduism.

When Jupiter moves into Leo, the Kumbh festival is held at Nasik on the banks of Godavari and in the event of Jupiter moving into Leo and the Sun entering Aries, the Kumbh festival is held at Ujjain.

Naga Sadhus

During the Kumbh Mela, a number of ceremonies take place; the traditional procession of Akharas called ‘Peshwai’ on elephant backs, horses and chariots, the shining swords and rituals of Naga Sadhus during ‘Shahi Snaan’, and many other cultural activities that attract millions of pilgrims to attend the Kumbh Mela.

The communion of nature and human life

The story of Samudra Manthan,

one of the best-known episodes in the Hindu mythology, narrated in the Bhagavad Purana states that the sacred alignments of celestial bodies directly relate to the Kumbh festival. It took 12 divine days to carry the Amrit to the heavens. As one divine day of Gods is equivalent to one year of the humans, the journey to the heavens symbolizes 12 years in human terms.Mythological studies suggest that the Kumbh festival and the Ganga are related to each other. 

That is why every twelfth year when Jupiter enters the Aries constellation on the day of the new moon in the month of Magh, the Kumbh festival is organized.

Apart from its primary bathing rituals, the social aspect of the festival also revolves around the various Yajnas, the chanting of Vedic Mantras, holy elucidations, traditional dances, devotional songs, programs based on mythical stories, and prayers.

. Religious assemblies are held where doctrines are debated, standardized and conducted by renowned saints and sages.

Kumbh has been spiritually uniting the people of India and across the world since time immemorial and will continue doing so for years to come.

The greatest responsibility of Akhara Mathas is to establish ethical values in the society. may be categorised into the following three sections based on their favoured deity:

Akharas are a symbol of social order, unity, culture, and ethics. Their main objective is the establishment of spiritual values in society.

Shaiva Akahras

The favored deity is Lord Shiva. They worship Lord Shiva in various forms based on the specific beliefs and ideologies of their organization.

Udaseen Akharas

Chandra Dev, the son of the first guru of the Sikh community is considered as the founder of the Udaseen Akhara. Followers of this sect principally offer their adulations to ‘ॐ’.

Vaishnava Akharas :

Lord Vishnu is the favored deity of this sect. They worship Lord Vishnu in various forms based on the specific beliefs and ideologies of their organization.

The path of enlightenment.

Do visit Vrindavan also for a better understanding of Indian Culture.


Aero India 2019: homage to Sahil

What else is better than witnessing Aero India, the air show being held at the outskirts of Bengaluru is organised every two years. Even it is forty kilometres away from our house, we travelled all along to experience the magnificence of Aviation sector, The logo for Aero India 2019 – a triangle in the colours of the national flag – is inspired by the Light Combat Aircraft Tejas.

This post is to pay homage to Wing Commander Sahil Gandhi who lost his life after two Surya Kiran aircraft collided mid-air yesterday during the rehearsal. As a tribute to the martyred pilot, the Surya Kiran team decided not to participate in the 5-day show displaying India’s defence capabilities.

Badminton player PV Sindhu flew the Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd’s Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Tejas on Saturday, 23 February, at the ongoing Aero India air show in Bengaluru. Sindhu was the co-pilot of the Tejas aircraft.

Sindhu was the co-pilot of the Tejas aircraft

The expo observed Women’s Day, with a showcase of women’s achievements in the aerospace sector.
Tejas, a light combat multi-role single-engine aircraft, boasts of several features such as; multi-mode radar, glass cockpit, fly-by-wire flight control system, use of composite materials, lightweight, highly agile.

Tejas MK I gets Final Operational Clearance (FOC) at Aero India 2019! In a boost to Indian Air Force’s (IAF) defence preparedness, the homegrown Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Tejas has been granted FOC.

Tejas MK I gets Final Operational Clearance (FOC) at Aero India 2019!

Tejas is an indigenous combat aircraft that has long been in the making and with the FOC, IAF will get much-needed firepower. Conceptualised by DRDO and manufactured by HAL, the Tejas aircraft is expected to plug the gap in IAF’s combat power.

IAF’s Surya Kiran team pays tribute to Sahil Gandhi
Days after an accident involving the two aircraft of the Surya Kiran Aerobatics Team, which killed one pilot, the team took to the skies on Saturday – the fourth day of Aero India.

IAF’s Surya Kiran aerobatic team fly in a ‘missing man’ formation.

The audience stood in silence as the team of seven aircraft flew in an arrow formation and a missing man formation to mourn their fallen pilot

Sarang display by helicopter aerobatic team of IAF

The ‘Sarang’, the helicopter aerobatic team of the Indian Air Force, perform during the Aero India show.

Ends its display with split manoeuvre after saluting Defence Minister Nirmala Sitharaman
Scenic beauty of Sarang Helicopter over country’s flag
This followed by romantic song giving an Oh, wow !! expression among the crowd
could not click the image as totally mesmerized, so( copied)

French aircraft Rafale manoeuvres during the inauguration of the 12th edition of AERO India 2019

The Rafale fighter jet is a twin-engine Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft.

The Dassault Rafale (French pronunciation: ​ literally meaning “gust of wind”,[and “burst of fire” in a more military sense)[is a French twin-engine, canard delta wing, multirole fighter aircraft designed and built by Dassault Aviation. Equipped with a wide range of weapons, the Rafale is intended to perform air supremacy, interdiction, aerial reconnaissance, ground support, in-depth strike, anti-ship strike and nuclear deterrence missions. The Rafale is referred to as an “omnirole” aircraft by Dassault.

Dassault Rafale
The acknowledgement must be given to Security personals over a constant hour of duty

Lockheed Martin and Tata Advanced Systems would produce the F-21 in India,

“The new [F-21] designation highlights our commitment to delivering an advanced, scalable fighter aircraft to the IAF that also provides unrivalled industrial opportunities and accelerates closer India-US cooperation on advanced technologies.”

This unprecedented Make in India opportunity combines the strength of the world’s largest defence contractor with India’s premier industrial house to deliver a historic win-win for India and the US.


The US-based company has offered to move its lone production line of the latest version of fighter aircraft F-16 Block 70/72 to India from Texas to meet Indian and global requirement —with a condition: The Indian Air Force (IAF) has to choose the world’s largest-sold fighter aircraft for its fleet.

However, no decision for the aircraft suitable to meet the immediate needs of the IAF is expected to be taken in the next six months. The Block 70/72 F-16 that is proposed is nothing but the same Block 60 aircraft developed for the UAE air force.

Sources have confirmed that this is the same aircraft that participated in the Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft competition to supply 126 multi-role combat aircraft to the Indian Air Force (IAF) and was rejected, along with Swedish SAAB ‘Gripen’ in 2011.

To be precise, the critical reasons for the failure of F-16 at the time was that there was no room for any improvements or growth in the aircraft. The F-16 in a new garb of F-21 being offered to India for the IAF has absolutely no growth potential.

Why not F-16s?

The F-16 is a 40-year-old airframe; all the upgrades that are possible are already done. There is no room for any more growth.F-16’s airframe is a third-generation design that has outlived its utility. It cannot measure up to even 4th generation aircraft any more, despite all the avionics upgrades. Its components, aggregates, fuel efficiency, life cycle costs, will all be in the 3rd generation.”

Today, modern fighter designs, whether single or twin-engine, have matured — enabled by high technologies such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis — such that these aircraft are highly manoeuvrable and have exceptional dogfight capabilities.

Aided by new technology radars and beyond visual range missiles, these aircraft are super fighters with exceptional dog fight or combat capability.

Best examples are Russian Su-30, Su-35, Lockheed Martin’s F-22 & F-35, French ‘Rafale’, and European ‘ Typhoon’, etc.

Much needed admiration and veneration to the mass who bear the pain of
scorching sunshine

Finally, 61 metal birds had participated in the air show. Followed by, an international round table conference of 13 global and 11 Indian CEOs of various defence firms are scheduled to meet. The CEO include that of General Atomic USA, SAFRAN France, SAAB Sweden, IAI Israel, Liebherr Germany, United Aircraft Corp. Russia, among others,

Floral decoration another gimmick of curiosity

As,the festival suggest “the runway to billion opportunity” enriched and enthralled our humanly experience and till now sound of flying aircraft is audible within us.

Sudden fire broke over Gate number 5,when we were at Gate 9 was another incident associated with it,would remain in our memory.


Muse de Orsay: An Unleashed platform

Musee d’Orsay Unsuitable for modern trains, its deserted platforms finally closed in 1979. Plans to demolish it in 1970 were overturned just in time and it became a listed building.

There is no draught in this train station, just art and light! Inaugurates during the Exposition Universelle of 1900, the Muse de Orsay train station resembled a fine arts palace to the painter Edouard Detaille ….which was what it was to become 86 years later.

Its immense volume was transformed into a museum whose canopy, nave, cupolas, pillars, iron girders, and stucco decors draws unanimous praise.

 Buoyant ambience of MO

The huge clock in the glass roof of the central alley dominates a chronological layout over three main levels, focusing on the major artistic movement in western art from 1848 to 1914: painting, sculpture, graphic arts and art object, as well as furniture, architecture, and photography,

The period was so productive, the collections so rich in wonderful works (and in -ism: expressionism, fauvism,etc.)that it seems impossible to cite one unique masterpiece.

La Vie (Zervos I 179)

is a 1903 oil painting by Pablo Picasso. It is widely regarded as the pinnacle of Picasso’s Blue Period.[

La Vie (Zervos I 179) is a 1903 oil painting by Pablo Picasso

The painting is in the permanent collection of the Musée d’Orsay .

La Vie (The Life) was painted in Barcelona in May 1903. It is 196.5 by 129.2 centimetres (6.45 ft × 4.24 ft) and portrays two pairs of people, a naked couple confronting a mother bearing a child in her arms.

 In the background of the room, apparently a studio, there are two paintings within the painting, the upper one showing a crouching and embracing nude couple, the lower one showing a lonesome crouching nude person very similar to Sorrow by Vincent Van Gogh.

With this Picasso repainted another motif, a birdman who attacks a reclining naked woman, traces of which are visible to the naked eye.

An important example of expressionism, La Vie was Picasso’s memorial tribute to his close friend Carlos Casagemas (1881-1901), a fellow Spanish art student who had accompanied him on his first trip to Paris (October 1900), where they established themselves temporarily in the Montmartre studio of Isidre Nonell (1872-1911), a friend from Barcelona.

A moody individual with a taste for Nietzsche and a tendency to depression, Casagemas fell in love with an artist’s model called Germaine Pichot (1880-1948).


Minerals and Meteorites :connatural to cosmos

As I have studied Geology as an optional subject and gone through a detailed analysis of Minerals, their manner of formation, origin, color, Pleochroism, Form And Habit, Cleavage and Relief.

So,once i happened to watch them in reality in Paris in GALERIE DE MINÉRALOGIE ET DE GÉOLOGIE (Meteorites)and this
Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle(for minerals).I truly wish to hug them ,i was so delighted that i wish to tell them you know i have learned about you fellas and watching you in reality is my dream cum true moment.

Aragonite, widespread mineral, the stable form of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) at high pressures. It may be distinguished from calcite, the commoner form of calcium carbonate, by its greater hardness and specific gravity.


Aragonite is always found in deposits formed at low temperatures near the surface of the Earth, as in caves as stalactites, in the oxidized zone of ore minerals (with lead substituting for calcium), in serpentine and other basic rocks, in sediments, and in iron-ore deposits.

Hyaline quartz, better known as rock crystal, is pure silica which is frequently in the form of hexagonal prisms surmounted by a pyramid at each end.Like all siliceous minerals,

Quartz Hyalin

hyaline quartz does not effervescence to acids; it sparkles with lighter and it easily scratches glass and steel. It represents the seventh term of the Mohs scale, that is to say that its hardness is between that of the orthoclase and that of the topaz.

Malachite is a green copper carbonate hydroxide mineral with a chemical composition of Cu2(CO3)(OH)2. It was one of the first ores used to produce copper metal. It is of minor importance today as an ore of copper because it is usually found in small quantities and can be sold for higher prices for other types of use.


Malachite has been used as a gemstone and sculptural material for thousands of years and is still popular today. Today it is most often cut into cabochons or beads for jewelry use.

Malachite has a green color that does not fade over time or when exposed to light. Those properties, along with its ability to be easily ground to a powder, made malachite a preferred pigment and coloring agent for thousands of years.


Dolomite is a common rock-forming mineral. It is a calcium magnesium carbonate with a chemical composition of CaMg(CO3)2. It is the primary component of the sedimentary rock known as dolostone and the metamorphic rock known as dolomitic marble. Limestone that contains some dolomite is known as dolomitic limestone.

Dolomite is rarely found in modern sedimentary environments, but dolostones are very common in the rock record. They can be geographically extensive and hundreds to thousands of feet thick. Most rocks that are rich in dolomite were originally deposited as calcium carbonate muds that were postdepositionally altered by magnesium-rich pore water to form dolomite.

Azurite and Dolomite


Azurite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral with a chemical composition of Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2. It is best known for its characteristic deep blue to violet-blue color. The blue color, known as “azure,” is like the deep blue evening skies often seen above deserts and winter landscapes.

Azurite precipitation occurs in pore spaces, fractures, and cavities of the subsurface rock. The resulting azurite is usually massive or nodular. In rare situations, azurite is found as stalactitic and botryoidal growths. Well-formed monoclinic crystals are infrequently found.

Euchroite is a hydrated copperarsenatehydroxide mineral with formula: Cu2AsO4OH·3H2O. It is a vitreous green to emerald green mineral crystallizing in the orthorhombic system. It has a Mohs hardness of 3.5 – 4.0 and a specific gravity of 3.39 – 3.45. It was first described in 1823 in Ľubietová, Slovakia.


So,here is description of minerals and meteorites.

Ancient text describing and authenticating the presence of Meteorites

1.Benld is an ordinary chondrite (H6) that fell the morning of September 29th, 1938, in Macoupin County, Illinois. 

The Benld meteorite was only the second meteorite recovered in Illinois (there are now 10 recognized meteorites from the state), and its fall was quite spectacular. 

The meteorite was described by B.H. Wilson in Popular Astronomy (1938) as “crashing out of the battlements of heaven, aimed apparently with the precision of a crack artilleryman, not only striking but penetrating the roof of a garage, as well as the car inside, thereby creating a situation, which, in several respects, is believed to be unique in the annals of meteoric phenomena”.

2.The Sylacauga meteorite is the first documented extraterrestrial object to have injured a human being. The grapefruit-sized fragment crashed through the roof of a farm house, bounced off a large wooden console radio, and hit Hodges while she napped on a couch.[3] The 34-year-old woman was badly bruised on one side of her body, but was able to walk. The event received worldwide publicity.


Dazzling Havelock Island – Swaraj Dweep 2 days Trip

Havelock now named Swaraj island to have an interesting history of stay intact even after the tsunami in 2004, now its most attractive tourist spot and however, the prices of commodities here are more than other islands.

Schooling and shoaling is a kind of collective animals behaviour by fish .

How to spend days in Havelock ?

Havelock offers a whole range of sea sports and activities they are having trekking and boat route to elephant island, the most beaches of Asia Radha Nagar beach, and kalapathar beach.

Inside of Mak cruise on the way from Shaheed to SwaraJ island.

History of Swaraj Island:

Havelock Island is named after a British general, Sir Henry Havelock, who served in India. In December 2018, it was renamed as Swaraj Island as a tribute to Subhas Chandra Bose.

Bose had hoisted the Indian flag at Port Blair on 30 December 1943 and proclaimed the Andaman and Nicobar Islands as territories liberated from British rule. He had subsequently named Andaman Island as Shaheed and Nicobar Island as Swaraj.

Know About The Best Beach in Asia

Radhanagar Beach on the western coast, also known as Number 7 Beach, is one of the most popular beaches on Havelock and was named “Best Beach in Asia” by Time in 2004. Other notable beaches include Elephant Beach on the northwest coast and Vijay Nagar Beach (No. 5), Beach No. 3 and Beach No. 1 on the east coast. Kalapathar is another famous beach.

Our hotel was in between both the beaches and we were able to visit both beaches twice daily in our three-day stay. Places to visit here

1.Elephanta island :

Elephant Beach is one of the major attractions for people on recreational and adventure trips to the Andaman Islands. The beach is secluded in the northern part of the Havelock Island and there are two ways to reach the island   

A. accessible through a boat and it will take you in 20 min and usually boat stay there for two hours.

 B. By trekking:

through the forest to reach their separation by a dense tropical jungle – and on the way to Radhanagar beach, you will find young boys working as a local guide to help in that way.

Compilation of trekking journey to ELEPHANTA ISLAND which is still gripping

We were accompanied by a boy named Ashish (16years) he was having reverence for whole nature and cleaning plastics bag and disposals of others also, at the same time he was curious about how the mainland India is and where we belong

He gave us memorable photographs of the whole journey and making us aware of strange flowers, tallest trees, and mangroves and small marine fishes.

Elephatna island provide only fruit chats which is delicious in itself
Sea sports at Elephanta

Radhanagar Beach on the western coast, also known as Number 7 Beach, is one of the most popular beaches on Havelock and was named “Best Beach in Asia” by Time in 2004

Alluring sight
Scuba Diving

They belong to the family of Pomacentridae genera honor coral reef the first to be noticed. As a group, they are a great nest for colonizing and exploiting the Reef. 

Clown/Anemone fish

Between the poisonous tentacles of a sea anemone. Two subgroups of animal fishes known for these islands, the amphibians, and the premnas. 
Former has more than a dozen varieties and outnumber the letter with only two known varieties. They are territorial and strongly defensive. 

Winsome view from scuba diving
The shoal is swimming in the same direction together ,it is schooling

2. Kalapathar Beach

is Beach No. 1 on the east coast known as Kalapathar is another famous beach, it is less crowded and sea creatures could be seen here.

As,this is less crowded ,so hanging place for others(
I took the opportunity to do Scuba diving on consecutive two days and saw most incredible underwater creatures
Typical coconut trees on sea shores
Air defense mechanism is much active on whole island ,they respond by lowing down the height
From Swaraj to Port Blair ,don’t forget to drink and carry a lot of water
On the way back to CAPITAL ,this time cruz have special seat arrangements

Surprising Samudrika Marine Museum is a must visit

In the Surprising Samudrika Marine Museum is a must-visit Andaman Islands, the various Andamanese people maintained their separated existence through the vast majority of this time, diversifying into distinct linguistic, cultural and territorial groups.

Aborigines and tribes
It is believed that the Andaman aboriginal might have reached this Island early in time, possibly by boat from Southeast Asia since they show a strong affinity to the Semang of Malaysia and the Aetas of the Philippines. 

Aborigines and tribes

However, a recent DNA match is indicative of a direct link with pygmies of Southern Africa.
The Nicobar is must have migrated sometime before the Christian era.
The origin of Andaman Aboriginals are primary hunter-gatherers, where are the Tribes of Nicobar are mainly horticulturist and herders.

Sentinelese continues to be hostile to outsiders, where are the ones ferocious Jarawas are gradually becoming friendly to civilized population. Onges and Great Andamanese have accepted the presence of outsiders. The Nicobarese have integrated well with outsiders and have joined the Indian mainstream. 
Shompens still avoid contact but are nonhostile

Different tribes spread all over Andaman

The indigenous peoples of the Nicobars (unrelated to the Andamanese) have a similarly isolated and lengthy association with the islands. There are two main groups: the Nicobarese, or Nicobari living throughout many of the islands; and the Shompen restricted to the interior of Great Nicobar.

Barren island:

The only live volcano in the Indian peninsula, barren life around 120 km North-East of Port Blair in Andaman sea. This tiny almost circular Island cover and area of about 8 square kilometres and has a diameter of about 3 km it belongs central Sunda group and is believed to be born out of an eruption which occurred during the late Pleistocene period. 

Later in the course of geological evolution, the prime giant cone got to transform to the present day Barren. 

The existing cone, in fact, is the central part of blow off Cauldron. Contrary to its name there in the island is fully covered with lush green forest and his inhabited by 13 species of birds, 10 species of butterflies and 9 species of insects, 7 species of mammals, who are species of each Centipede and spiders.

Down the mammals included as the stock of feral goats, which have adopted the answer to the terror and depend on seawater to survive in absence of a perennial freshwater source on the island. It is believed that The Goats reached the island following a shipwreck in the region. 

Talking to an old friend makes you realize how much your life has changed

By the 1850s when they first came into sustained contact by outside groups, the indigenous people of Andamans were: the Great Andamanese, who collectively represented at least 10 distinct subgroups and languages; the Jarawa: the jungle (or Rutland Jarawa); the Onge; and the Sentinelese (the most isolated of all the groups).

SEAHORSE a small marine fish
Blue whale specimen

About 940 species of echinoids are recorded in the word with 113 species known from Indian seas. 
The globular cell is provided with sharp-pointed spines. 
The numerous tube feet on the lower side formally attached the individuals to the hard substratum. 

They are mostly Herbivorous and control the excessive growth of algae, which is detrimental to the health of live corals. 


Their long fragile Spine and poisonous globiferous pedicellariae protect from several Predator organisms. Sum of urchins such as stomopneustes variolaris, Echinometra Matthaei and Echinometra molar is bole Tun Rock and dead Coral bases. 

The flats and dollars, cake urchins and heart-shaped heart urchins inhibit 10 of the substrate are and subsist on their organic content. Sea urchins produce the antibacterial substance in the skin. 

Coral reproduction

A true Reef-building stony coral may be unisexual or bisexual. In sexual processes The Breed together once in a year at a predetermined time after Dusk, a day or two before the spring full moon. Male and female sperm is released in millions of pink balls. These balls burst and the process of fertilization is completed. 

This Process, at places, show intense Tata water stays pinkish till next morning. A large number of pink corals are released in the open Sea this way. 
After some time these baby Coral settle over a suitable substratum and start forming new colonies through asexual reproduction. Dear morphological features change with the environment in which they settle. 

Andaman Reef Builders

Coral reef all over the world is the handiwork of hermatypic Reef  Builders.

In these islands, there are two chief Reef builders namely Porites and Favia.
The Other forms present here such as favites, platygyra, symphyllia, ganiasprea and diplostrea(brain corals) are the Associates Reef builders.

These  corals create massive dome-shaped colonies creating shelter for other branching and delicate form such as Acropora(staghorn corals)
Pocillopora (thorny Coral), stylophora(birds nest) and Montipora to establish.

All the massive and branching forms named above are sedentary and colonial.
However, there is also a solitary Coral, which belongs to family Fungiidae is popularly known as Mushroom Coral.

Hawksbill Turtle

The hawksbill turtle is a critically endangered sea turtle. It is only species in its genus. The species have worldwide distribution Eretomchelys imbricate is the Atlantic subspecies, while Eretomchelys imbricate bissa is found in the indo-pacific region. 

While the turtles live a part of its life in the ocean, Is most often encountered in Shallow Lagoon and a coral reef where it feeds on the sea sponges.
In addition, the sponge is that Hawksbill heat are usually those with high silica content, making the tortoise one of your animals capable of eating siliceous organism. They also feed on other invertebrates, comb jellies and jellyfish.

Hawksbill Turtle


Shells are perhaps the most colourful and fascinating object known to mankind other than changed since time immemorial.
They served as money, ornaments, and musical instruments, drinking cups, in magic and in the making of fine porcelains. They are also the symbol of ritual and religious observances.

Types of shells

Shells form by a soft-bodied creature known as ‘mollusc’.the
Soft body animals, which live inside the cell is covered with a thick layer of specialised epithelium cell known as mental, which in turn secretes are too tired shell material making the shell.
The outer layer having a different colour pattern is organic in the constitution, technically called ‘periostracum’.

Calcium ions from the environment are absorbed into the blood and deposited evenly under this layer.
The next inner layer is called’ nacre ‘or’ mother of pearl’ responsible for pearly lustre common to many shells.

These Islands are traditionally known for their shell wall especially Turbo, Trochus, Murex and Nautilus.
These shells are supporting many cottage industries producing a wide range of decorative items and ornaments.

For back in time someone 50 million years ago molten magma might have used from Earth’s crust along with the dilated ocean floor food of submarine Ridge. Phenomena appear to have taken a long time does create mid- Ocean rise known to many geologists as whale back tumours. 

This island with a few exceptions is volcanic in origin. We are in the fact at the tip of risen undulating Lava plateau, the core of which goes deep down beyond the ocean floor. Conformity with the expanding earth theory. 


Andaman and Nicobar islands: Sublime essence of nature

For me, this trip was no less than freedom and liberty, as I have earned this priced trip after love cum arranged marriage. In fact, we both were finding solace and peace of simply being with each other. After so many seesaw phases in our relationship, we finally managed to walkover interstate /intercultural marriage. This was our first trip after marriage and it was miraculous. Typical (Honey Moon destination)

So, we reached from hajipur to Patna then to Kolkatta to Port Blair. I was enjoying the five-meter saree and red Chura(Bangle)as its kind of dress code for newlywed brides. Apparently, the island is famous for catering couples nowadays once was a place for excruciation of Indian freedom fighters, higher most torcher was to send them to Kaalapani(Andaman )   but now it shows the prowess of Indian navy and richness of marine life , colorful corals, and ethnic tribes.

the prowess of Indian navy

Geographical location: The Andaman & Nicobar Islands is a union territory of India. This territory is known as A & N Islands, or ANI. It is located in the Indian Ocean, in the southern reaches of the Bay of Bengal, nearer to Indonesia and Thailand. This comprises of two island groups – the Andaman Islands and the Nicobar Islands – which separate the Andaman Sea to the east from the Indian Ocean.

Cellular Jail

in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, stands as a dark reminiscence of the British rule in the Indian subcontinent. This most dreaded and grueling colonial prison situated in the remote archipelago was used by the British particularly to exile Indian political prisoners. Isolated from the mainland, this jail, also referred to as Kala Pani (where Kala means death or time and Pani means water in Sanskrit) witnessed the most atrocious punishments imposed on prisoners. India’s struggle for independence saw imminent freedom fighters like Batukeshwar Dutt and Veer Savarkar being incarcerated in this jail. The jail is now open to public viewing as a National Memorial, and its museum gives one a glimpse of years of India’s struggle for freedom.  

Cellular Jail

the place for excruciation of Indian freedom fighters
once this place was filled with Azadi slogans

Vinayak Damodar Savarkar

  (28 May 1883 – 26 February 1966) was an Indian freedom fighter, politician, lawyer, and writer, known for his activism for Indian independence. Savarkar popularized the term Hindutva

Savarkarji room

Savarkar’s revolutionary activities began while studying in India and England, where he was associated with the India House and founded student societies including Abhinav Bharat Society and the Free India Society
The airport at Port Blair, Andaman and Nicobar’s capital, has been named Veer Savarkar International Airport.[ The commemorative blue plaque on India House fixed by the Historic Building and Monuments Commission for England reads “Vinayak Damodar Savarkar 1883-1966 Indian patriot and philosopher lived here”

On the way to point where prisoners were thrown out to flat surface told by the guide, now this place is for experiencing nature’s love

These two groups are separated by the 10° N parallel, the Andamans lying to the north of this latitude, and the Nicobars to the south. The capital of this territory is the Andamanese town of Port Blair. There are 572 islands in the territory, of which only some 38 are permanently inhabited.  Most of the islands (about 550) are in the Andamans group, 26 of which are inhabited. The smaller Nicobars comprise some 22 main islands (10 inhabited).

These larger ships are used for commuting from main Port Blair To nearby island, WE fitted in with our SUV and observe the number of two-wheeler in there

The Andamans and Nicobars are separated by a channel (the Ten Degree Channel) some 150 km wide. The territory’s population as per the most recent (2011) Census of India was 3,79,944 and the literacy rate is 86.27%. Added together, the total land area of the territory is approximately 8,249 km². The total area of the Andaman Islands is some 6,408 km²; that of the Nicobar Islands approximately 1,841 km². Other islands are Shaheed Dweep, Swaraj Dweep, Netaji Subhas Chandra

Hindi and English are the official languages of the islands. Bengali is the dominant and most spoken language, with 26% of the population speaking Bengali. The other major languages spoken in the islands are Hindi (18.23%), Tamil (17.68%), Telugu (12.81%), Malayalam (8.11%) and Nicobarese (8.05%) according to 2001 Census of India. Other minor spoken languages are Kurukh/Oraon, Munda and Kharia. Andaman Creole Hindi is widely used as a trade language in the Andamans.

Mount Harriet National Park  

Mount Harriet (383 meters (1,257 ft), which is part of the park, is the third-highest peak in the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago next to Saddle Peak

The park is named in commemoration of Harriet Tytler, the second wife of Robert Christopher Tytler, a British army officer, an administrator, naturalist and photographer, who were appointed Superintendent of the Convict Settlement at Port Blair in the Andamans from April 1862 to February 1864 Harriet is remembered for her work in documenting the monuments of Delhi and for her notes at the time of the Revolt of 1857 in India.

The picture on the backside of ₹ 20 note

The ₹20 banknote of the Mahatma Gandhi Series is 147 × 63 mm red-orange colored, with the obverse side featuring a portrait of Mahatma Gandhi with a signature of the governor of Reserve Bank of India. It has the Braille feature to assist the visually challenged in identifying the currency. The reverse side features the famous Mount Harriet in Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

The picture on the backside of ₹ 20 note is taken from  here

Nature’S perfect place for Photo-shoot
Towering view from Emerald island viewpoint
Clove island beach
People trying to get another skill which is needed for survival here

Chatham Saw Mill

 is the sawmill situated in Chatham Island of Andaman and Nicobar Islands in India, It was set up in 1883 with the primary objective to meet the local requirements of saw and timber for the constructional works. It is owned by the state government.

old photo of the mill
ongoing work inside mill
in memory of bombing during WORLD WAR 2,a bomb pitt is formed
MADE OF WOOD, but seems real

Chidiya Tapu:

This is the place is far away from Port Blair but is the essence of Nature creations… The serenity of place allows to enjoy till sunset..and before that one could enjoy sand side games. Try it if you have enough time.

ISLAND was full of lady officers and we managed to click with a cordial tribal lady police

Chidiya Tapu, well known for its rich collection of birds, white-spotted deer, and orchids, draws many visitors and is a perfect place for nature lovers. The sky of Chidiya Tapu is filled with around 46 species of birds namely, drongos, hanging parrot, scarlet minivet, emerald dove, long-tailed and red-breasted parakeets, white-bellied sea eagles, and grey-fronted and imperial green pigeons to name a few. 

just to remember if appearing for the exam .UPSC has a strong affinity for this island

In the Andaman Islands, the various Andamanese people maintained their separated existence through the vast majority of this time, diversifying into distinct linguistic, cultural and territorial groups.

In every walk of nature, one receives far more than one seeks
You can also plan for other beautiful locations.

Ravenous 6 yards Silk saree in making

India is the world’s second largest producer of silk. In Karnataka, the country’s largest silk-producing state, more than a million people earn their livelihood by making silk.One fine day ,we get opportunity to visit Sathnur village with six other meditation teachers.Here we have to conduct satsang in evening .So,we were roaming the villages street then encountered silkworms rearing in house

It all begins with mating. Chandana owns a family business of silk rearing in village near kanakpura, about 40kms from Bengaluru, runs a grainage, a facility that produces silkworm eggs. She  has been in the business for 12 years and is well acquainted with the silkworm’s needs. “Silkworms are finicky creatures,” she tells me.

 They thrive in warm, humid environments, but sicken if it is too warm or too humid.

A teacher making us understand silk rearing

After 5,000 years of domestication and breeding, the silkworm moth is the world’s only completely domesticated insect, wholly dependent on human help for survival. Due to captive breeding for so many years, its wings have reduced to small, ineffectual appendages that can flutter but don’t help it fly, not even to its mate.

At the grainage, they manually pair moths. On a sheet of paper marked with 40 circles are 40 small, plastic cups. Inside each cup are a male and a female silkworm moth. Two hours alone in the cup and the two are done mating.

Then they remove the male, which is smaller in appearance, from each cup, leaving the female inside. Around 48 hours later, the female moth begins laying eggs. When she is done, she dies. When the plastic cup is removed, each circle marked on the paper bears the female’s output: 400-500 eggs, each the size and shape of a pinhead. And so, with one death and many births, begins the story of silk.

The eggs hatch about eight days later, revealing caterpillars that resemble minuscule black threads, each about 3mm long. From now on, the silkworm has a single agenda—to eat.

 Unlike wild silkworms, these domesticated caterpillars cannot move in search of leaves to feed on. Silkworms are fussy eaters and have a marked preference for the leaves of the mulberry tree

 The newly hatched caterpillars are kept on large trays strewn with a generous layer of chopped mulberry leaves. At this stage, they loll about in air-conditioned comfort and are given only tender, young leaves, .

Caterpillars are far more sensitive to fluctuations in temperature and humidity than moths.

They are provided multilayered mulberry leafy bed

Like other caterpillars, silkworms go through five instars, which means they moult—or shed their skin—four times. Each time they moult, they emerge bigger and hungrier. Chandana rears silkworms only up to the second instar. So, to follow the young caterpillars’ progress through the silk trail, we visit Manohar, another family nearby.

Manohar and his family look after the caterpillars from the third instar. Next to his house, in a darkened building built especially for this purpose, Manohar has stacks of large bamboo trays lined with old but washed and disinfected saris. He spreads newspaper on these and then the silkworm’s chosen delicacy, mulberry leaves. One corner of the room has a huge pile of mulberry leaves, all of which will be consumed by his caterpillars in a day. The caterpillars need to be fed three times a day. “We feed them first and only then have our lunch,” says Manohar. By the end of the fifth instar, the caterpillar weighs about 10,000 times as much as it did when it was born.

When young larva are placed on chandrika,carefully

Finally, some 28 days after the eggs hatch, the silkworm is ready for the next major stage in its life—metamorphosis. The caterpillars indicate this by going off their food. The farmers then carefully transfer each caterpillar on to a chandranki, a circular bamboo mount that is traditionally used for the silkworms to build their cocoons in.

It is fascinating to watch the caterpillars as they get ready to pupate. Each caterpillar moves its head restlessly, trying to find support to start its weaving. And then I notice a very fine, gossamer-like filament, seemingly made of light itself, trailing from a caterpillar’s mouth—silk!

Two-three days of constant spinning and weaving later, each caterpillar lies ensconced in a cocoon that looks like a pale yellow and fluffy blob smaller than my thumb. Two-three days later, the cocoons are taken to the market. By this time, as Manohar points out, each caterpillar has been handled at least thrice—once when it arrived, once when it was transferred to the chandranki and, finally, when the cocoon was removed from the chandranki to be sold.

Then they are sold at Comprising a series of cavernous halls, each filled with hundreds of large metal trays piled with cocoons, the market smells of cocoons and commerce. A knot of men moves through the maze of trays like a swarm of bees, stopping at each tray for fast and furious auction. Bids fly through the air. ₹ 320! ₹ 340! ₹ 360! for a kilo of cocoon!

The cocoons then move into the next stage of production, silk reeling.

. You can see these blue-shirted men cycling around town, bent under the weight of the huge bales of cocoons that they carry on their heads. Each bale weighs an astonishing 30-50kg.

The silkworms have led a cushy life till now, with their every need taken care of. Reeling is where it all comes to a gruesome end.

Shamshir works as a reeler, as does the rest of his family. Silk-reeling near Bengaluru happens mostly in small, cramped rooms attached to small, cramped houses. Men and women work in these dark, dingy, smoke- and steam-filled rooms for 8-10 hours a day, dipping their hands in scalding water. Essentially, the cocoons are dunked in boiling water, which allows the cocoon to be unravelled without breaking the silk fibre. When the silk has been reeled completely, what’s left is the pupa that was inside each cocoon, now dead.

 For animal lovers, this is the abhorrent part of the silk-making process: The making of mulberry silk necessarily involves the killing of hundreds of silkworm larvae.

The last stop in the journey of silk is the weavers. There are power looms galore in and around Bengaluru, but the characteristic clickety-clack of handlooms can now only be heard at a handful of places on the outskirts of the city

Further there are hundreds of threads dangling from it, vertically, horizontally, everywhere. Parts of it move up and down rhythmically, operated by the weaver’s feet. Others slide from side to side in tandem with his hands. “You have to use all parts of your body to operate these,” smiles Ambareesh, who learnt the craft from his father.

It takes a day to set up the loom for a particular sari and one-three weeks to weave one. The end product of all this controlled chaos is perfection in the form of a silk sari.

Beginning with the people who bring male and female moths together, to those who tend to the mulberry plants, feed the caterpillars and enable their metamorphosis, to the men who bear the cocoons on their backs, to the reelers, who reel silk while inhaling smoke and steam and, finally, the weavers who patiently weave the silken magic, we have come to the culmination of the silk trail—six yards of regal splendour.


Shaheed Dweep(Neil Island) Stunning 37kms

Shaheed Dweep (Neil island) is a tiny but beautiful island located 37 Kms. to the south of the Andaman Islands. We arrived at this unique and rustic charming island by afternoon, First time in my life I was seeing such clear water that seashore was visible. Till now, I can feel that soothing sea wind and breath in that ultraquiet air.

With unexplored coral reefs, brilliant bio-diversity, white sandy beaches, and tropical forest and vegetation, it is one of the hot tourist spots in the Andamans.

The whole crew was cordial and they educated us on various topics, inside cabin crew
View from a far distance from Cruz window

Shaheed Dweep is known as the ‘vegetable bowl’ of the Andamans.

The settlers named the beaches after mythical characters of the epic Ramayana (Bharatpur, Laxmanpur, Sitapur, Ramnagar, etc.) The island, with its very relaxed vibes and long, deserted beaches is a place to chill out after the “bustle” of Havelock.

Long stretches of white sand , turquoise blue water, and lush green forest are visible as far as our sight reached

Type of erosional landform is the sea arch, which forms as the result of different rates of erosion typically due to the varied resistance of bedrock. These archways may have an arcuate or rectangular shape, with the opening extending below water level. The height of an arch can be up to tens of meters above sea level.

Natural Bridge lovingly called: Howrah Bridge.

It is common for sea arches to form when a rocky coast undergoes erosion and a wave-cut platform develops. Continued erosion can result in the collapse of an arch, leaving an isolated sea stack on the platform. Still further erosion removes the stack, and eventually, only the wave-cut platform remains adjacent to the eroding coastal cliff.

The approach to the natural bridge is through a small hamlet, lined by tall mahua trees. The best time to visit the place is at the low tides otherwise one may get stuck if the time is not noted on. The bridge accompanied to the beach is termed as the dead coral beach. The beach is mainly suited for trekking purpose not for swimming.

The beach is occupied with many shops selling souvenirs like t-shirt, seashells and foods, tender coconut and fruit near the place. Perhaps a lifetime experience for the youth to hope around to its exotic flavor.

Ramnagar Beach

One of the most underrated beaches in all of Neil Island, the Ramnagar Beach with its white sand shore, numerous trees (providing plenty of shade), and amazing coral reefs is everything glorious!

Tranquil and crystal clear water
These beaches are the best place to make new friends.
Best place to alleviate our Parana level.

Laxmanpur Beach

In simple words, this beach is one of the best beaches to experience a sunset in the Andaman Islands.

Sunset at Laxmipur Beach

You can explore the rich marine creatures and coral reefs. Those who pursue fishing will get the best catches of the day.

The widest part of the island is about 5 km in length. You can walk the whole island in about two hours.

On the final day : saying goodbye to the island with a promise of coming back.

This was the best place for contemplation and thought-provoking, memories of these beaches are etched in our life, we are simply waiting for next time to visit again.


Chateau de Versailles: Dream for eternity

Versailles was originally an aristocratic hunting lodge, before capturing the dreams of the young Louis XIV.

Once a revolutionary ground now entrance for Versailles

Versailles is a place where once visionary King resides with his ambition of being remembered for generations and his glory of Hall of mirrors witnessing important events of French history is here.

Versailles is almost 45-minute ride with metro and RER from Paris and you have one have to buy a separate ticket for it. You will get a sense of what the outside of Paris seems like, it because more of a normal people are busy in their daily chore and shopping outside Versailles is really cheap compared to the main Paris.

My awareness for Versailles was limited to the treaty of Versailles which became cause of World War 2 and Netflix TV series on the same name until I gave it a visit.

While I was walking in the palace resuming a king with a long hair fair skin sparkling eyes ambitious king with a dream for eternity and a court  full of nobles, keeping them busy in the luxurious life of Palace at the court and while king could read his country on his own.
Servant passing secret messages at Court which is full of ladies and mistresses. This was once a center for political maneuvering which was always running ahead of his time.

Louis XIV portrait in Versailles

In July 1589, the future Henri IV of France spent two nights at Versailles. He was preparing to lay siege to Paris, then in hands of Holy League. When he becomes king of France, he returned Versailles in 1604 in order to hunt.

The beginning of Louis XIV reign

Louis XIV lived in his father’s apartment, on the first floor in the Northen part of the Chateau, and Queen Marie –Therese lived in a symmetrically opposite apartment in the southern part.

Gold plated railings

Louis XIV interest in Versailles became evident as of 1662-the two wings in the forecourt were entirely reconstructed in order to create a larger entrance area: the stable wings (the old wing)and the wings of the government offices in the north (where Gabriel wing now stand)

In 1663, the architect Louis Le Vau built the Orangery and the Menagerie. As of 1665, the Grotto of Tethys was created in the lower part of a water reservoir.

Versailles became a venue for entertainment, housing, in particular, the “Pleasure of the Enchanted Island”

Between 1668 and 1671, the chateau was enlarged by le Vau, who was succeeded by Francois d’Orsay in 1670. The original chateau was conserved in keeping with the king’s wishes, was enveloped on three sides by taller stone building with a flat roof:
Le Vau’s included a large terrace opening out into the garden on the first floor. This offered the panoramic view of the Grand perspective, which was extended to the west by Grand Canal, whose construction began in 1668. 

At the same time, the four Court wings built-in 1662 were linked to the schedule by the main building and intermediate pavilions, which were
Symmetrically opposite to the jutting corner pavilions, we are enclosed by railings, 4 Pavilion square building 1672 the house the securities and the king wish to hold the Council at Versailles. 

Throughout the Summer of 1674, Versailles hosted sumptuous festivities in celebration of the conquest of Franche Comte. During these Divertissement de Versailles ‘, Alceste, the lyrical tragedy by Philippe Quinault and Jean – Baptiste Lully, was performed in the marble courtyard. 

Architectural model of Versailles

Louis XV and Louis XVI

As of 1678, extensive modifications we are made to the schedule and its associated building and the ground, under the direction of architect Julius Hardouin – Mansart: The terrace and Six room that surrounded in the le Vau ‘s ‘ envelope’ where replaced by the great Hall or the hall of mirrors, which was completed in 1684;- to create new accommodation, the south or prince’s wing , completed in 1682, 

The North wing was built between 1685 and 1689;- to provide permanent accommodation for the government staff, the wings of the Minister wear building the four Code by integrating the to Eastern pavilions built-in 1670; the two Western pavilions where reconstructed.

After the Regency period in Paris (17 15 – 22) the Louis XV decided to return to the Versailles, he made many remarkable creations such as the Hercules room the Neptune basin the Opera the French Garden and Petit Trianon. 

During the reign of Louis XVI, the evolution in the taste was reflected in the creation of new decorations and furniture, the return to antique was expressed with discrete elegance.
Replanting of Garden was major project carried out under his Reign, this resulted in the creation of new groups such as that of Apollo baths. 

From the revolution to Louis Phillippe”s museum

Louis Phillippe portrait

In 1789, several Revolutionary events took place in Versailles
The opening of estate general on 5th May, the formation of assembly National French national assembly on 17 June, the oath of Jeu de Paume on 20 June, 

The abolition of feudal privileges on 4th August, and the March of Teresian on Versailles on 5th 6th October. 
On 6th October 1789 that king, the royal family, the court and the government left Versailles for Paris. 

In 1792, most of the paintings antique sculpture and jewels were sent to central Museum of Art now the Muse the Louvre, books, and medals were sent to the National Library. 

Wilder rock and scientific instrument where transfer to the school of art and craft. 

With the Proclamation of Empires, Versailles once again became an official residence of the Crown. Napoleon rebuilt part of the park, which had been neglected during the revolution, and had the Chateau restored; he planned to set up residence there, abdicated before being able to carry out his project, and instead of occasionally decided in the Grand Trianon as of 1809. 

Likewise, the Restoration was too short-lived to enable LouieXVIII to settle down again in the Chateau where they were born. 
It was during this period that the Dufour Pavilion was built. 
In1830, the Chateau was practically intact. In 1833, in order to save it from an unworthy use, Louis Philippe decided, the interest of national reconciliation, to transform it at his own expense into a museum dedicated to all the glories of France. 

In this museum, he assembles the collection of portraits and historical scenes, whose size (6000 paintings, 2000 sculptures, and 35000 drawing and engravings), documentary interest and very often artistic value made Versailles the largest museum of history in the world. 

In 1855, Napoleon III received Queen Victoria at Versailles, with great pomp and Splendor.
On 18 January 1871, the king of Prussia, who had become Emperor Wilhelm  I of Germany, announce the birth of second German Reich in Hall of the mirror. 
To erase the humiliation of 1871, the Peace Treaty that ended the first world war was signed in the hall of mirrors on 28 June 1919. 
In March 1871, the government and the Assembly moved to Versailles. The Royal Opera was transformed into an assembly hall for the deputy. 
In 1875, after the Re-establishment of bicameral system, The Royal Opera became home to the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies was installed in a new room, built in the center of South wing. 
When the Senate and the Chamber of deputies move back to Paris in 1879, the Great Hall, building 1875, became the Congress room. It was used until 1958 for elections of presidents of Republic. 
In 2005, the parliamentary retroceded the other room that had been assigned to it since 1879. The Congress room is the only area that continues to be used for governmental purposes, in particular, the revision of the constitution.